A study (Migrant woman in the EU labour force) finds that the labour market participation rates of migrant women differ between groups of Member States, especially for third-country migrant women. The study also finds that the migrant woman’s youngest child age and how recently she has arrived in the receiving country effects participation rates.
The study point out that migrant women were much less likely combine employment with having young children than native-born women, while third-country migrant women were more likely to have young children .
The study also found different result for migrant women depending on which Member State they had migrated to. The labour force participation rates of third-country migrant women were essentially lower than those of native born women in the Member State which the study categorized as “old” migrant receiving countries (those is Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the UK and Austria). The different participation rates are attributed to the different demographics of third country migrant women, with the average age of those arriving in the “new” receiving countries being mostly lower than that of the native born population.
More notable were the age of the woman´s youngest child and how recently migration had occurred. Having the child under the age five, reduce the labour force participation rate of migrant women more substantially than it did for native born women. This suggests that migrant women have less access to work-life balance arrangements and to childcare facilities.
Native born and third-country national’s differences are stark, particularly in the “new” receiving states. There ´underemployment`- defined as involuntary part-time work or temporary contract work -appears to be more common. Looking at the types of works carried out by third country migrant women, the study found, that while migrant and native born women both experienced gender segregation, the former were concentrated in a narrower range of jobs contrast with non-migrant and EU migrant women.
The analysis also found that while higher education levels improved integration, third country migrant women still had lower labour market participation rates. They also have higher unemployment and higher underemployment that equally qualified non-migrant and EU migrant women. Accordingly third country migrant women had experienced higher levels of deskilling as a result of migration. Structural and systemic obstacles were therefore a factor in explaining the poorer labour market position of third country nationals.