Women and Men
In all developed countries, women earn less than men in all job categories.
In the EU, women managers are the worst off compared with men. A survey that covered four countries – Spain, France, the United Kingdom and Sweden – revealed that in the United Kingdom, women managers receive two-thirds the pay of their male counterparts. Even in Sweden, which is nearest to equality, this proportion is only 80%.
Women and men in lower-paid non-manual jobs – clerks, shop assistants, etc. – are closest to being equal in these four countries.
There is a noticeable trend, that women in older age groups fall even further short of the average earnings of their male counterparts.
The wage gap between more and less educated people has widened in recent years. Although men still earn better than women in all education categories, the trend for men with less than a secondary education is worse than for women with the same education level. In the United States, real hourly wages of men with less than secondary education have been declining since the beginning of the 1980s. If this trend continues, wage equality between poorly educated men and women will become reality very soon. However, as in the EU, the wage gap between well-educated men and women has not narrowed
Alternative forms of work
Part-time workers earn much less than full-time workers, even on an hourly basis: 85% of the full-time average in Sweden, 71% in France, 69% in Spain and 60% in the UK. Most part-timers are in low-paid jobs, and most are women – 67% in Spain, 68% in France, 69% in Sweden and 81% in the UK.
Contingent full-time workers earn less than non-contingent full-time workers. Contingent workers are those who do not have an implicit or explicit contract for ongoing employment, and who do not expect their jobs to last. Wage and salaried workers are included, even if they already held the job for more than a year and expect to hold the job for at least an additional year. Self-employed persons and independent contractors are included, if they expect their employment to last for an additional year or less, and if they had been self-employed or independent contractors for one year or less.
Full-time workers provided by contract firms – both contingent and non-contingent – earn best ($610 median weekly earnings). Median weekly earnings for workers with traditional working arrangements were $510 – exactly the same as for full-time non-contingent workers. Workers provided by temporary help agencies earn much less than workers provided by contract firms.