Even tough United Nations seems to support increased level of implementation of equal education and job opportunities for women and men, the figures about women employment suggests that this effort still on the theorical level. When Fourth World Conference on Women has been gathered in order to discuss about the status of the women, the following points can be found under “Women and Economics” header:
- Promote women’s economic rights and independence, including access to employment, appropriate working conditions and control over economic resources.
- Facilitate women’s equal access to resources, employment, markets and trade.
- Provide business services, training and access to markets, information and technology, particularly to low-income women.
- Strengthen women’s economic capacity and commercial networks.
- Eliminate occupational segregation and all forms of employment discrimination.
- Promote harmonization of work and family responsibilities
(Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org)
These goals has been subject to rewievs and improvements of the UN and The ILO in 5-years periods since 1985 but the financial crisis in the USA and Eurozone crisis in the European continent have made these goals much more reachable and created a bigger gap between men and women employment. According to the ILO reports, in 2012 29 million jobs lost and still to be recovered and additional 2.5 million expected to be lost in 2013. In 2012, women unemployment rate has increased to 5.8% (72 million women unemployed out of 1.2 billion) while male unemployment rate at 5.3% (98 million unemployed men out of 1.8 billion) and total of 13 million jobs has been lost for women. According to the ILO reports, all these statistics put out that the lowest gender gap, which is measured in mostly in Asian countries, increased by 0.5% and reach to 1% and globally this gap has reached to 0.7%. As ILO expects that this gap can not be reduced before 2017, the last 5-year review of the UN and the ILO on “Women and Economics” seems to fail again. In addition, unemployment is not the only gap expected to be solved. In both developing and advanced economy countries women still mostly worked in mid-skill level jobs such as clerks, service workers and sales workes as men were over-represented in crafts, plant and machine operations and managerial occupations. Even tough education level of women has increased in developing countries, barriers for women still obvious.
Even tough global forums and actions should be taken in order to solve unequality problems between genders should be taken to create more awarness to the topic, to create more country and cultural based policies about gender employment. Even tough the UN and the ILO manages its activities by global thinking, these institutions may be creating their solutions in a very centric way. Gender equality in education and employment should be taken as matter of improvement national and global economy, not only matter of human rights and education and business environmet are intensively effected by local cultures. From that aspect, governments should be encouraged for creating more local solutions with the monitoring of the UN.
written by Yvonne Kohaus, Carl-Frederic Korn and Hasan Can Acar